Blower and Turbo Information
With a K Valve –
The main jet- (pill) is located in the brass plug with 9/16” head. The pill controls the flow of fuel back to the tank at all times – Larger pill = leaner mixture / Smaller pill = richer mixture.
The Idle adjustment is accomplished by what is known as leakdown%. You will need a leak-down tester for fuel injections to accomplish this, or you can simply attempt to adjust the hex rod that connects the K Valve to the Butterflies-
The Butterflies are pre set to approx.. 005” to .010” – do NOT adjust them to achieve an idle – only adjust the rod to richen or lean the mixture at idle. This adjustment has no influence on power, all idle only.
As the barrel valve is forced to move in the normal direction of travel it gets richer – Move it backwards to lean the idle. Expect a 1500-1600 rpm Idle NO less. These systems do NOT idle down low. They like 1800 rpm.
Information for a Square Barrel Valve is the same except the By pass pill will be located in an external pill holder connected to the fuel inlet fitting. Otherwise all information is the same.
Boost referenced Fuel Flow Control Valve:
This is the heart and soul of a boosted mechanical system.
This valve begins at wide open and is controlled by a 3lb pressure valve coming from the barrel valve – The 3 lb keeps it from flowing fuel while the fuel pump is trying to initially get fuel to the nozzles. After it idles, the pump makes around 5 lbs, so it opens that valve and fuel rushes to the tank. Since boost is non existent yet, there is no need for much fuel flow. This fuel valve is controlled by boost, so more boost causes it to close, less boost keeps it open longer. When boost climbs, it will close at a pace that keeps up with fueling needs. The ratio of operation of this valve is controlled by a Jet or pill holder which you put inline from your boost source and send it to the -6 fitting on the Flow valve.
The LARGER the pill – the more boost it will apply thus closing the valve sooner.
The SMALLER the pill, the longer the valve will allow fuel to go to the tank causing leaner conditions which work with less boost. So Big pill for Big boost, small pill for smaller boost.
Now you see that you have three major adjustments:
Main jet – pill
Boost Flow valve – pill
Barrel valve – Leakdown idle adjustment
We have installed a pressure valve between the barrel valve and the POWER nozzles to stop them from opening until boost is sufficient to handle the fuel from the POWER nozzles – You will HAVE to tinker with the pressure settings of this valve to achieve the power nozzles opening at the correct time. More shims in it result in making it open at a higher pressure which keeps the power nozzles closed longer – Less shims = less pressure which will open them sooner – So now you have the 4th adjustment. This is the most difficult adjustment to make, since you have to do some guessing about where your boost is coming in to allow the use of more fuel to the power nozzles sooner or later.
IDLE NOZZLES – The Idle nozzles are always flowing, the engine runs comfortably on idle nozzles with low to no boost, and of course, eventually the system will cause the power nozzles to join them as boost comes up. Your job is to figure out when and how much.
Shut off valve:
All mechanical systems have shut off valves so you can stop the flow of fuel to the engine in an emergency, or when you want to drain the system or put it up after racing. You can also pull the shut off valve back some to lean the system out during warm up at idle to cause it to get hot quicker, the hotter the better up to around 1100 degrees. You can expect approx. 500 degrees on the headers at a 1500 rpm idle and overall 1050-1150 peak EGT on methanol at Wide open peak. Over 1200 is too hot, so use a smaller pill in the main or a smaller pill in the boost referenced valve, or larger power nozzles part # 7007.
Alkydigger also sells a primer kit which will let you push a switch and make the system flood itself to get it started, since you cannot squirt a Blow Through setup easily. You can install a device in the HAT to let fuel drizzle onto the butterflies which will cause it to start, then close off whatever opening you used to let fuel in. Our setup uses a pressure nozzle to flood the distribution block. We install the primer valve in the distribution block, but we do not furnish the rest of the primer kit with it.
Sizing the Nozzles and main jet pill :
This is part of the initial design – Based on Engine size, turbo or Pro-Charger size – static compression – fuel type etc. we size match the fuel pump, idle nozzles, power nozzles, power nozzle check valve pressure for an initial setup – We CANNOT tune these systems, only you can. They cost 20% of an expensive EFI system, and offer plenty of power and tons of adjustment, but you don’t have the computer doing the tuning like you do on the $12,000 setups.
So in summary
You can now see how you have 7 different adjustments:
Main jet, pill in the flow valve, pressure to the power nozzles, Barrel valve leakdown for idle, and the size of the idle and power nozzles.
Our leakdown tester is: part # LeakdownAD
Idle nozzles are part # 7007-E
Power Nozzles # 7007
Main jet pills # 7009
Pro Chargers: set up
Assuming you are using the boost referenced flow valve, you will want a small pill in the boost line, maybe a .040 .050 so not much boost will allow that valve to close quickly. We want it to remain open on a procharger for a while due to slow boost building up.
Use an unBlown spool in the barrel valve due to slow boost build up from idle – so on the pill side the check valve needs to be around 3 lbs.
The top check valve around 30 lbs when using a K Valve.
We have now started inserting a 3 lb check valve in the hose supplying fuel to the boost referenced valve to stop the gushing of fuel initially to feed it. Originally we fed it direct from the port outlet – so use a 6001-3 -6 valve or a 6010-3 -8 valve (3 to 4 lbs pressure).
The idle nozzles generally need to be small – most of the time in the 26 range. We have used 27, 29, and even 30 on methanol.
The power nozzles need to have a 18 lb check valve stopping them from working until around 18 lbs of fuel pressure occurs. We have used 10, 12, 15 and 18 lb on that valve.
Same as the Pro Charger above except- since boost comes on quicker from idle use a 12 or 15 lb check valve to open the power nozzles.
Most superchargers take 14 – 16 oz., except for Retros – they need 20 oz.
Smaller superchargers like the 192, 250, Weiands, and B and M’s take 8 – 11 oz.
What Is A MAP Sensor & What Does A MAP Sensor Do?
Remember science class when the teacher shouted “Pay attention! You might need this someday!” ? Well, as much as I don’t want to admit it, that teacher was right. Let’s touch upon the basics and see if it rings a bell?
- First off – MAP is an acronym for Manifold Absolute Pressure. MAP sensors measure the air pressure in your intake manifold which helps the engine’s computer determine air / fuel ratios. MAP sensors are set to “zero” from the factory. So with the car off, and the key on, the MAP sensor will read “zero” at sea level.
- On earth, we have 14.7 Pounds per Square Inch (PSI) on us at all times at sea level.
- “Bar” is a measurement of pressure. 1 Bar = 1 atmospheric pressure, which is 14.7 PSI.
- The absence of pressure is measured in “Inches Of Mercury” (in. hg). (Finally we get to use the periodic table of elements in real life!)
- -1 Bar = -29.4 in. hg
- 1 Bar = 29.4 in. hg
- Naturally Aspirated = without a turbocharger or supercharger. Also known as “N/A”.
- Forced Induction = with a turbo or supercharger
- In forced induction applications “Boost” is automotive slang for PSI
- Stoichiometric Air Fuel Ratio = The ratio of the exact amount of air it takes to burn a fuel completely.
- Stoichiometric for Gasoline Engines = 14.7 : 1 (14.7 parts air to 1 part fuel).
Now some of that good stuff:
With a N/A engine running, the MAP sensor may see readings anywhere from -29.4 in. hg to 0 PSI depending on how hard you smash the pedal. The more you hit the throttle, the closers to 0 psi the MAP sensor will read because there is less vacuum in the intake manifold. On an engine with forced induction, the MAP sensor will also measure boost (finally above zero!).
When MAP sensor data is combined with an air temperature sensor and a known engine speed, the ECU (engine’s computer) can accurately calculate the air flow rate of the engine, which then means it can calculate fuel. It does this with fuel maps that are programmed into the ECU. The fuel map guides the engine to its happy stoichiometric place. Easy enough right?
So what is so great about a 3 or 3.3 Bar MAP sensor? Why do people use them on cars that they don’t belong on?
Some cars that come stock with superchargers or turbochargers have 3 or 3.3 bar MAP sensors from the factory. So horsepower addicts like to take their own project car, stuff more boost into it than it was ever intended to have (More Powahhh!), and run a tunable computer system to handle the changes. Since a 1 Bar sensor can only read up to 14.7 psi (which is really zero here on earth), a 1 Bar sensor can’t handle any forced induction applications. EEEK! Any type of forced induction puts pressure (above zero) into the intake manifold, and therefore horsepower seekers need a MAP sensor that can accurately read those pressures. This is where the 3 or 3.3 Bar comes into play. A 3 Bar sensor can read up to 44.1 PSI (Subtract the 14.7psi of atmosphere, and it can actually can read up to 29.4 PSI.) So, if a person were to put a 1 Bar sensor where a 3 Bar goes, the ECU would freak out when the boost arrives, and wouldn’t know what to do with the air/fuel ratio because the numbers on the fuel maps don’t add up anymore. The moral is that the 3 and 3.3 bar sensors are perfect for this type of thing because of their simple 3 wire connector, reliability, and accuracy. Oh and the price is great too!
Goes in the blower manifold or intake manifold Blown or Unblown
Is it possible to have a blower on 93 octane pump gas without the stripping in the rotors?
Why stripped or not? Does Compression ratio matter?
If yes that I can get a blower without the stripping in the rotors, what is the max horsepower cutoff without the stripping and 93 octane pump gas?
This is one of the most misunderstood elements of blowers. Stripping is done in levels. So a stripped blower is always more efficient than a non stripped one. The degree of tightness is what is to be considered. All of our Blower shop Blowers are stripped for specific fuels. Gas requires more clearance and thus looser stripping to eliminate heat. Alcohol and E-85 can accept much tighter stripping since alcohol is a cooling fuel, and the tighter the stripping the more boost a blower can make.
Gas is such a low octane (resistance to detonation) that if a blower produces much boost, and when coupled with a high static compression, it will eclipse the ability of 93 octane to not detonate, and that is how engines are destroyed. So we have a chart in our technical area which tells how much boost you can have with pump gas and be safe. Think of a blower as a compressor or like piston rings- Tighter clearances = more ability to work.
Pump E-85 can be dangerous to try and figure out because it can be as low as 100 octane or as high as 105 at any given time.
Drum C-85 is always approx 117 octane usually good up to 18-1 compression.
Methanol doesn’t have a boost limit for all practical purposes and will resist detonation to over 30-1 compression.
The “Effective” compression ratio has to be calculated by first knowing the engines compression (Static), then adding the blowers boost which gives an answer called “Effective” which is what the engine is seeing as the compression ratio.
So 8-1 compression + 10 lbs of boost = about 14-1 compression (too much for pump 93 octane) call us for help on this before you hurt something.
Alkydigger’s Turbo/ ProCharger Boost referenced Flow Valve BV1062
This valve provides a way to limit the flow of fuel away from the engine during boost cycles.
The way it works is by normally being wide open with no boost.
When boost is sent to the valve, from any source where boost is available before the butterfly, to the -6 fitting on the valve it causes the valve to begin to close.
More boost which is regulated by the “Air Valve” will cause it to close more quickly – Less boost will make it close more slowly.
The Air Valve uses “Pills” to allow more or less boost to get to the Turbo valve. Larger pill = More Boos t= Quicker Closing = more fuel to the engine sooner.
The -12 Fitting gets returned to the tank. The -12 wants a fairly short hose or direct fit to the tank with no turns if possible.
The -8 Fitting receives the fuel from a direct source from the pump. Fuel pressure BEFORE it gets metered.
So in summary:
Smaller pill in the Air Valve makes it in effect leaner.
Larger pill in the Air Valve makes it richer.
Alkydigger’s Air Valve AV6001 is recommended, using 7009- Enderle pills. You should have pills in the .050 to .100 range on hand.
Alkydigger Fuel Injection
All blowers are a compressor. So all blowers will make positive pressure in the manifold.
Weak blowers have dual rec. openings, they are 60 degree twist (Standard Helix), so they have a lot of drag, and are generally set up with loose clearances for Gas. Can you use E-85 or Methanol? Yes. The level of boost will be minimum unless the blower is designed with tight clearances, and has high helix (120 degree twist).
The greater the twist, the less friction they have and a high helix rotor will continue to make boost well up in the 10,000 rpm Blower Speed, where a std. helix will flatten out at around 7000 rpm blower speed.
Blower speed is a product of the drive ratio – so 25% overdrive = 8750 rpm blower speed on an engine turning 7000 rpm.
This is why you are wasting your time and energy spinning a 60 degree rotor blower at anything over 20-30% overdrive usually.
Methanol likes lots of air, and lots of boost since it uses twice as much fuel as gasoline. So high helix, high boost, big butterflies works well in general with methanol.
Blowers designed more for methanol have V Shaped discharges called “Delta” openings – The air is further compressed by forcing it through a smaller opening, thus adding speed and boost.
E-85 is an alcohol based fuel – it also likes boost, and it runs cool, has much higher detonation limits than Gas – Drum E-85 is usually 117 octane.
Gasoline – Burns fast, and HOT. The octane is limited to 93 for pump gas, and some have octane up to as high as 116 – However gas is difficult to tune in mechanical injection, expensive to buy in high octane form, and runs very hot. Gas blowers are set up to not make much boost since gasoline is intolerant of high compression in most forms, so not much effort is put forth to create boost.
Boost + Static compression = Effective compression which puts pump gas out of the picture when effective compression hits around 11:1.
This is why you will hear from many who have some knowledge, but don’t understand the whole picture; they will say that you have to have 8:1 compression with a blower. They don’t know why necessarily, but if their advice is taken without research and they build a 8:1 Alcohol engine, it will be a slug. Methanol and Drum E-85 can easily tolerate 11:1 12:1 static compression so when coupled with the blower boost they often have compression ratios of 20:1 which is fine with alcohol based fuels, but not with Gasoline.
Call Alkydigger 615-457-3192 for more insight into the design of a good supercharger system.
Notice that the RETRO has an extra front opening – This is caused from using the gear case to create more cu in of displacement by milling it out – thus causing the blower to have to be moved back 2-1/4” on the blower manifold, which then centers the boost discharge.